MOSCOW (AFP)---Russian archaeologists said Wednesday they had found the long-lost capital of the Khazar kingdom in southern Russia, a breakthrough for research on the ancient Jewish state.
"This is a hugely important discovery," expedition organiser Dmitry Vasilyev told AFP by telephone from Astrakhan State University after returning from excavations near the village of Samosdelka, just north of the Caspian Sea.
"We can now shed light on one of the most intriguing mysteries of that period -- how the Khazars actually lived. We know very little about the Khazars -- about their traditions, their funerary rites, their culture," he said.
The city was the capital of the Khazars, a semi-nomadic Turkish people who adopted Judaism as a state religion, from between the 8th and the 10th centuries, when it was captured and sacked by the rulers of ancient Russia.
At its height, the Khazar state and its tributaries controlled much of what is now southern Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan and large parts of Russia's North Caucasus region.
The capital is referred to as Itil in Arab chronicles but Vasilyev said the word may actually have been used to refer to the Volga River on which the city was founded or to the surrounding river delta region.
Itil was said to be a multi-ethnic place with houses of worship and judges for Christians, Jews, Muslims and pagans. Its remains have until now never been identified and were said to have been washed away by the Caspian Sea.
Archaeologists have been excavating in the area if Samosdelka for the past nine years but have only now collected enough material evidence to back their thesis, including the remains of an ancient brick fortress, he added.
"Within the fortress, we have found huts similar to yurts, which are characteristics of Khazar cities.... The fortress had a triangular shape and was made with bricks. It's another argument that this was no ordinary city."
Around 10 university archaeologists and some 50 students took part in excavations in the region this summer, which are partly financed by the Jewish University in Moscow and the Russian Jewish Congress.
The ancient nation of Khazaria adopted Talmudic Judaism in 740 AD. The people of Khazaria were a Tuko-Mongolian people. According to many historians and researchers, including Arthur Koestler, Khazars have no racial connection to the ancient people of Israel. It is estimated that 97% of Jews today are of Khazar origin.
In 740 King Bulan adopted Talmudic Judaism as the state religion for Khazaria. He changed his name to Manasseh and over 500 of his noblemen were circumcised, adopted Jewish names and became instant Jews. Synagogues were built through out the kingdom, rabbis were brought in to teach the people their new religion, thus a Jewish nation was born.
Today, these same Khazar Jews dominate our foreign policy and promote world Zionism. However they are not related to the people of Israel.
Israel, and the covenanted promise made to Abraham and Sarah can today be identified with the Christian nations of Europe.