Submarines were first built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that they were first used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor, began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare, he built an eight-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Turtle for its shape. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.
Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in 1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Eagle in New York Harbor on September 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He retreated, and the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Eagle or the Turtle.
During the next week, the Turtle made several more attempts to sink British ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator's lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the submarine's complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was unable to pilot the Turtle in any of its combat missions. During the Battle of Fort Lee, the Turtle was lost when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British. To the right is a cross view of The Turtle.
Despite the failures of the Turtle, General George Washington gave Bushnell a commission as an Army engineer, and the drifting mines he constructed destroyed the British frigate Cereberus and wreaked havoc against other British ships. After the war, he became commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stationed at West Point.
I received another call from the Jerry Springer Show yesterday inviting a representative of the Knights to be a guest on the show. This has got to be about the 10th time over the years that I have turned down the Springer Show. I know one time they wanted unmarried 13 or 14 year old pregnant girls who were going to raise their kids to be Klansmen.
What an idiot!
I told them we do not do the Jerry Springer Show. She asked if I could recommend someone and I simply (but politely) told her I would not recommend the Jerry Springer Show to anyone.
Dan Ganes of the Washington Examiner called to ask questions about literature distribution by Klan associates in Virginia.
Also Max Snow, a photo journalist from New York called yesterday and is going to make plans to attend the annual White Christian Heritage Festival in Pulaski, TN.
Those of you who can come to the White Christian Heritage Festival won’t be disappointed. Check out the website at - whitechristianheritagefestival.org - for more information
I also want to remind everyone that if you are on our mailing list and move, you will need to notify us ASAP because The Crusader is mailed at Bulk Rate and the post office does not forward bulk rate mail. If you do not give us your new address you will not get any further issues of The Crusader after you move.
And lastly, there has been some challenges in getting The Crusader back into tabloid form. We think we have the problem resolved. In the mean time those who order bulk quantities will help us tremendously. The new Crusader will be a 12 page tabloid newspaper. Bulk quantities will sell for 50 copies for $25. If you would like to get a bulk shipment then I need you to email me ASAP at -firstname.lastname@example.org -